"Iran has just issued a New Warning," Trump said on Twitter. "Rouhani says that they will Enrich Uranium to 'any amount we want' if there is no new Nuclear Deal. Be careful with the threats, Iran. They can come back to bite you like nobody has been bitten before!"
Trump's message came after Rouhani announced that Tehran will "take the next step" by increasing its uranium enrichment closer to weapons-grade levels beginning Sunday if they do not offer a new nuclear deal by then, adding that Iran will increase it to "any amount that we want".
The current nuclear deal prevents Iran from enriching uranium above 3.67 percent, which is enough for nuclear power plants but far below the 90 percent needed for weapons, Tehran has quadrupled its uranium stockpile this week, breaking with the limitations of the agreement.
Rouhani's bold moves continue to cause tensions with the U.S. as Trump refuses to pull back on sanctions meant to cripple Iran's economy and discourage moves towards nuclear proliferation.
"Our advice to Europe and the United States is to go back to logic and to the negotiating table," Rouhani said in a televised address to his Cabinet. "Go back to understanding, to respecting the law and resolutions of the U.N. Security Council. Under those conditions, all of us can abide by the nuclear deal." His remarks seemed to signal that Europe has yet to offer Iran anything to alleviate the pain of the renewed U.S. sanctions targeting its oil industry and top officials.
On Tuesday, European powers issued a statement on Iran breaking through its stockpile limit, calling on Tehran "to reverse this step and to refrain from further measures that undermine the nuclear deal."
Trump pulled the U.S. out of the 2015 nuclear accord last year, taking a much more hardline stance with the country's religious regime. In recent weeks, the U.S. has rushed an aircraft carrier, B-52 bombers and F-22 fighters to the region and Iran has shot down a U.S. military surveillance drone.
Fox News' Danielle Wallace and The Associated Press contributed to this report.