Key findings in Temple University study on NCAA infractions

Key findings in the Temple University Sport Industry Research Center study of 554 NCAA Division I major infractions cases between 1953-2014:

- 82.9 percent of the cases (459 of 554) involved football, men's basketball or both.

- Sports most frequently included in major infractions cases: men's basketball (270, 49 percent), football (259, 47 percent), women's basketball (38, 7 percent), men's track and field (41, 7 percent) and baseball (32, 6 percent).

- 73 percent of cases involved one sport.

- 84 percent of major infractions cases involved violations by coaches.

- Most common infractions: Recruiting inducements (57 percent), impermissible benefits (54 percent), other recruiting violations(48 percent), unethical conduct (46 percent), lack of institutional control (27 percent), exceeding financial aid (25 percent), ineligible participation (22 percent). The percentage indicates how often that infraction type was part of a case. Note that one case may have multiple infraction types.

- Most common penalties: Probation (87 percent), public reprimand and censure (86 percent), recruiting restrictions (50 percent), scholarship reduction (46 percent), postseason ban (42 percent), show-cause order (28 percent), wins vacated/contests forfeited (21 percent).

- The Southeastern Conference was the most-penalized conference, at 8 percent of the cases. The Pac-12 and Big Ten were next, at 7 percent. Schools from the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12 and SEC accounted for 39.9 percent of cases.

- The period between 1985-89 saw the highest number of major infractions cases (69). Since 1986, the average number of cases is 11.3 a year.

- Two schools had nine cases since 1953 (Arizona State and SMU, though the Mustangs now have 10); five schools had seven cases; 77 schools had one case.

- Repeat offenders account for 12.6 percent of the cases. In 6 percent of cases, the offending school is on probation.

- Since 1953, 33 percent of all violations have been self-reported. Before 1984, it was 9 percent; after 1984, it was 48 percent.