Union and rebellion: Milestones of Scotland's journey from British union to independence vote

These are the milestones of Scotland's journey from Great Britain to the United Kingdom and, following Thursday's vote, a possible return to independence.


May 1, 1707: A treaty creates a new Kingdom of Great Britain governed from London. Scotland's Parliament in Edinburgh is abolished.

Sept. 6, 1715: Rebels led by Highland clans back Scotland's aspiring heir to the British throne, James Stuart. Their armies march south into England to topple George I but are defeated. James flees to France in February 1716.

July 23, 1745: James Stuart's son Charles — better known as Bonnie Prince Charlie — arrives in Scotland to launch a second Highlander-led rebellion. Charles' forces enter Edinburgh in September but fail to marshal strong public support, and a proposed French invasion of England is canceled. The rebellion is crushed at the Battle of Culloden near Inverness on April 16, 1746. Charles flees for France. British parliamentary acts seek to outlaw the Highland clan system.

Jan. 1, 1801: Scotland enters a bigger United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland following passage of parliamentary bills in London and Dublin.

May 30, 1913: The House of Commons in London passes a home rule bill for Scotland following decades of lobbying and three rejected bills. The approach of World War I thwarts these plans to create an Edinburgh legislature handling Scottish affairs.

April 20, 1934: Two nationalist parties merge to create the Scottish National Party.

March 1, 1979: A Scottish referendum to create a regional legislature fails because of low turnout.

Sept. 11, 1997: Scots give 74.3 percent voter backing to create a Scottish Parliament in a referendum backed by Britain's newly elected Labour Party, the longtime political power in Scotland.

May 12, 1999: The 129-member Scottish Parliament convenes. Labour leads the government, Scottish nationalists the opposition.

May 5, 2011: First Minister Alex Salmond, who had overseen a minority government in Scotland since 2007, leads his Scottish National Party to an unexpected landslide victory in elections. The SNP gains an overall parliamentary majority.

Oct. 15, 2012: An agreement between Salmond's SNP and Prime Minister David Cameron's Conservative-led British government paves the way for a referendum.

Sept. 18, 2014: Scottish voters decide whether to keep Great Britain intact or end their union with England, Wales and Northern Ireland.