The man, only identified as "Yarlen," was taken into custody in the western state of Gujarat after being on the run for years, authorities said.
"We created a special cell to track him down and arrest him," Ritesh Sirothia, of the Madhya Pradesh Forest Department, told the BBC. "It was our longest chase, it went on for six years."
Officials say Yarlen is part of the nomadic Pardhi-Behelia tribe, which typically lives in forests and hunts to survive, and reportedly believes animal penises serve as an aphrodisiac.
In 2013, Yarlen was first arrested after two south bears were discovered without genitals and without gall bladders. He spent a year in jail before being released in 2014, when he made bail and fled.
Authorities think Yarlen is also connected to the poaching of endangered wild animals, including tigers, across India. He's connected to at least six cases of animal poaching, the news outlet reported.