It happened Saturday night in rural Hancock County.
The hayride, a wagon being pulled by a tractor, overturned and slid down a ravine, WGEM-TV reported.
The ride was part of a family gathering.
The local coroner identified the person who was killed as Amy Swinderman, of Hamilton, Ill., the station reported.
Of those injured, 17 were children, all 12 and younger, according to the station.
Illinois State Police Capt. Jon Dively Jr. told the station a child suffered significant injuries.
The operator of the tractor, Wayne York, 41, of Nauvoo, Ill., was cited for failure to reduce speed to avoid an accident, WGEM reported.