The boy, identified as Tyree Sampson, fell 400 feet from the Orlando FreeFall ride at Icon Park late Thursday night.
He was taken to a hospital, where he died.
"We can't imagine the pain and anguish that his family must be going through," Orange County Sheriff John Mina said, noting that Sampson had been visiting a family in Central Florida from his home in Missouri.
The 430-foot-tall Free Fall ride – the world's tallest free-standing drop tower, according to the attraction – and the adjacent Orlando Slingshot have been closed indefinitely.
Both rides opened in December 2020.
The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services told the Orlando Sentinel that it is investigating the accident
Icon Park is located on International Drive and has several attractions, including the "crown jewel" 400-foot-tall Ferris wheel that opened in 2015.
Other attractions include Madame Tussauds Orlando, the Pearl Express Train, SEA LIFE Orlando Aquarium and StarFlyer, which the park says stands at 450 feet and is the "world's tallest stand-alone swinging ride."
That ride moves up and down, rotating guests at speeds of up to 45 mph.
In September 2020, 21-year-old worker Jacob Kaminsky died after falling about 50 or 60 feet from the StarFlyer ride, according to the Orlando Sentinel.
The publication noted that Slingshot Group has been operating amusement rides in Florida since 2000.
Icon Park is managed by IDL Parent LLC, according to the park website.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.