Located in East Asia, China, also known as the People’s Republic of China, is the most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 1.4 billion. China's largest cities are Shanghai, its financial center, and Beijing, the national capital. The current president is Xi Jinping, who has served in office since 2013. China borders 14 countries, has five time zones, and is made up of 23 provinces. The eastern power is also the world's largest economy by GDP at purchasing power, the second-wealthiest country, and the world's largest manufacturer and exporter. Along with having nuclear capabilities, China is considered a rising superpower and potential global rival to the United States.
The modern Chinese government emerged after the fall of its last monarch in 1912, giving way to the emergence of the Republic of China. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, China's ruling nationalists united the Chinese Communist Party to defeat the invading Japanese army. From 1945 to 1949, the country was in a civil war between the nationalists and communists that ended with the CCP claiming victory over modern-day mainland China and the nationalists fleeing to the island of modern-day Taiwan.
Currently, China is ruled by the Chinese Communist Party as a one-party socialist Republic. China has economic and political influence over various international organizations, including the United Nations, where it sits on the Security Council as a permanent member with the power to veto measures. China holds membership in the G20, APEC, RBICS, and the East Asia Summit.
The Chinese military has the largest standing army by individual military personnel and the second largest defense budget behind the U.S. The government of China has faced criticism for its repression of political dissidents and ethnic and religious minorities. One of China's closest allies is the neighboring eastern power of Russia.