Tests Monday revealed the Toronto Raptors player tore a muscle in his left leg in Sunday's 86-85 loss. Calderon had headed to the locker room late in the game. He went scoreless with three assists.
The Spanish federation says Calderon needs four weeks to recover.
The 28-year-old was part of Spain's 2006 world champion team and won Olympic silver two years ago in Beijing.
Calderon says "there is not much to say. It's a pity I was injured at the last minute."
The world championships run from Aug. 28-Sep. 12 in Turkey.