The incident happened on Wednesday at a five-story building in the Esenler district, located on Istanbul's European side.
In video taken from the street below, the mother is seen dropping each child from the window as a cloud of black smoke pours through the opening. Community members can be seen below the window stretching out a blanket to catch the children.
A neighbor who witnessed the incident described the scene to the Turkish pro-government newspaper Daily Sabah.
"First, black smoke started to come out," the neighbor said. "Then, the children started shouting from the windows. And we opened the blankets. A woman threw the children down from above. So, we caught four kids with blankets."
Local authorities told the outlet that all four children were safe and in good condition. Firefighters were able to put out the fire.