In unveiling the measure, state Rep. John Becker called Ohio a "pro-life state," according to Cleveland Scene. Under House Bill 358, doctors who perform or induce an abortion would face a fourth-degree felony of "abortion manslaughter" and could have their medical license revoked and face up to 18 months in prison.
Women who receive abortions would not be prosecuted.
"If and when the Supreme Court decides to return the issue of abortion back to the states, we want to be prepared for what comes next," Becker said in a statement.
The bill forbids abortions in the state unless the mother's life is at risk or if she is at “serious risk of the substantial and irreversible impairment of a major bodily function." It does not include exemptions for rape and incest.
Two dozen Republicans have already signed on to the bill as co-sponsors. Lauren Blauvelt-Copelin, of the Planned Parenthood Advocates of Ohio, blasted the bill.
"Anti-abortion extremists are at it again," she said. "House Bill 538 is the 10th ban introduced in the last year, proving leaders in the Ohio General Assembly are only focused on eliminating legal access to abortion and neglecting everything else."
The bill comes as the high court heard arguments Wednesday in a Louisiana abortion case, the first major one since the addition of President Trump's nominees justices Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh.
The case, June Medical Services v. Russo, is part of a larger effort by red states to pass laws regulating abortion to test how supportive the new justices will be of precedents like Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey.
Fox News' Bill Mears and Tyler Olson and The Associated Press contributed to this report.