Workers spotted the animal's head poking up above water as the dog paddled through the ocean towards the platform.
"If the waves had been strong, we wouldn't have seen him," Vitisak Payalaw, of Chevron Thailand Exploration and Production’s oil drilling team, wrote on Facebook. He shared images and video of the rescue.
The shivering animal then managed to cling to a pole on the platform and could be seen looking up as workers on the oil rig devised a rescue plan.
"Finally, we decided to tie a rope around his neck and pull him to our site," Vitisak wrote. "We had to race against time as wind waves might sweep him away."
The brown Aspin dog was eventually pulled from the sea safely, but "looked exhausted," according to Vitisak.
The pooch was believed to have fallen into the sea from a fishing trawler, the Bangkok Post reported. She has now been named "Boonrod" which in Thai means "making a spiritual donation for good luck in the future."
Boonrod spent the weekend onboard the drilling platform, receiving food and water from the crew before she was brought back to land on Monday, the Bangkok Post reported.
People could be seen greeting the dog on video as she was taken off a boat and delivered into the care of the animal charity Watchdog Thailand.
The oil rig worker who saved the pooch said she is between 3 and 5 years old and now has "a lot of energy."
"I hope to adopt her as a pet," Vitisak told ViralPress. "I am looking forward to spending many happy years together with her."