The U.S. airstrike in Syria early Friday morning was an "aggression against a sovereign state" and in violation of international law, the Kremlin said in a statement.
Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov said President Vladimir Putin believes that the U.S. has dealt the strikes under "far-fetched pretext."
Russia also suspened an agreement with the U.S. to avoid mid-air collisions over Syria in wake of the airstrikes. The deal had been made for safety precautions when engaging military targets.
Russia has argued that the death of civilians in the Syrian town of Khan Sheikhoun on Tuesday resulted from Syrian forces hitting a rebel chemical arsenal there.
U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said Thursday that "either Russia has been complicit (in the attacks) or Russia has been simply incompetent."
Peskov said that the U.S. has ignored past incidents of the use of chemical weapons by Syrian rebels. He argued that the Syrian government has destroyed its chemical weapons stockpiles under international control.
Russia added that no servicemen dies in the U.S. airstrike.
The U.S. launched nearly five dozen cruise missiles at a Syrian airfield early Friday in response to a chemical weapons attack that killed dozens of civilians, the first direct assault on the Damascus government since the beginning of that country's bloody civil war in 2011.
Trump addressed the media shortly after reports on the airstrike began to surface.
"It is in the vital national security interest of the United States to prevent and deter the spread and use of deadly chemical weapons," Trump said. "Tonight I call on all civilized nations to join us in seeking to end the slaughter and bloodshed in Syria, and also to end terrorism of all kinds and all types."
The Associated Press contributed to this report