Key leaders in the Egyptian armed forces:

— Defense Minister Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi

Born Oct. 31, 1935. Held numerous infantry command positions and has a master's degree in military science. Also served as military attache to Pakistan and commander of Egypt's Presidential Guard. His combat service included the wars in 1956, 1967 and 1973.

— Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Sami Hafez Enan

Born in February 1948. Commanded Egypt's air defense forces and served as defense attache to Morocco. Combat service includes the 1973 war with Israel.

— Air Force commander Lt. Gen. Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohammed

Born March 3, 1952. Military service included 1973 war. Has flown fighter jets. Held numerous command posts and served as a liaison officer to the United States. Has a master's degree in military science.

— Naval Forces commander Vice Adm. Mohab Mohammed Hussein Mamish

Born Aug. 6, 1948. Holds a master's degree in naval science. Has trained in the United States.

— Air Defense commander Lt. Gen. Abdel-Aziz Seif el-Din

Born June 3, 1949. His commanded positions included leading an Air Defense missile brigade. He served in the 1973 war.