Significant dates in relations between India and Pakistan:
Aug. 14, 1947: Pakistan is created as a nation. The next day, India gains independence from Britain after two centuries of colonial rule.
October 1947: War breaks out between India and Pakistan in Kashmir. The United Nations brokers a truce 16 months later.
September 1965: The two countries fight a second war over Kashmir, ending in a U.N.-brokered cease-fire after three weeks.
January 1966: India and Pakistan sign a Soviet Union-sponsored peace deal.
December 1971: A third war breaks out — this time over Bangladesh, which had been East Pakistan.
July 1972: India and Pakistan agree that a cease-fire line called the Line of Control would divide Kashmir, although not as an official border.
May 1974: India conducts first nuclear test.
November 1989: Islamic insurgency starts in Kashmir.
May 1998: India conducts five nuclear tests. Pakistan carries out its first nuclear tests. The United States and several other nations impose economic sanctions on both.
April 1999: India successfully tests a missile capable of delivering a nuclear bomb deep inside Pakistan. Pakistan then successfully tests its own similarly capable missile.
May-July 1999: India and Pakistan fight a limited 11-week battle in the Kargil region of Kashmir.
October 2001: Islamic militants slam explosives-laden car into the state legislature in India-controlled Kashmir, killing 40 people.
December 2001: Suicide attack on Indian parliament leaves 14 dead. India blames Pakistan's spy agency. New Delhi severs diplomatic ties, cuts travel links and moves hundreds of thousands of troops to the frontier, putting military on war alert. Islamabad denies the charge and matches India's moves.
May 2002: Islamic militants attack passenger bus and an army base in Jammu-Kashmir, killing 34 people, mostly soldiers' wives and children.
April 19, 2003: During visit to Kashmir, Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee makes surprise offer to resume dialogue with Pakistan.
April 28, 2003: Pakistan responds to Vajpayee's offer, proposes a series of peace gestures.
May 2, 2003: India and Pakistan agree to take steps to restore diplomatic relations and resume travel links. Diplomatic ties restored in the following weeks.
Jan. 5, 2004: Vajpayee and Pakistan President Gen. Pervez Musharraf meet for the first time since 2001.
Jan. 6: India, Pakistan announce resumption of bilateral talks on all issues, including Kashmir, to begin in February.