Desktop environment: The graphical user interface. GNOME and KDE are the most prevalent.
Distro (abbreviated from "distribution"): A package of the Linux kernel with a desktop interface and numerous programs.
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model): Pronounced "nome," this is a Linux desktop environment with a focus on usability.
GNU (GNU's not Unix): Pronounced "guh-noo," a free software project under which Linux and its apps are developed.
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader): The standard shell that loads when the computer is turned on to let users select which OS to boot.
KDE (K Desktop Environment): The first of the major GUIs for the X Window System, popular for the range of apps available for it. (The "K" originally stood for "Kool.")
Kernel: The core element of the OS, dictating how the OS and the processor communicate.
Open source: Software whose underlying programming code can be accessed, modified, and redistributed by anyone.
Partitioner: Software that adds, deletes, or resizes partitions during Linux installation.
Wine (Wine Is Not an Emulator): An ongoing project that experiments with the possibilities of running Windows apps from within Linux.
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