Chicago lost its fifth in a row and dropped 10 games behind Minnesota in the AL Central. The Twins' magic number was cut to five.
Verlander (17-8) pitched a six-hitter and struck out eight. He struggled in only one inning, giving up three runs in the fifth.
Sizemore, batting for starting second baseman Will Rhymes, hit a tiebreaking home run with two outs. Reliever Sergio Santos (2-1) gave up two singles in the eighth before Sizemore homered off Chris Sale.
Ryan Raburn hit a two-run single in the first to give Detroit a lead it would not relinquish.
In the fourth, the Tigers added a run on Will Rhymes' two-out double down the right field line that scored third baseman Brandon Inge.
Verlander breezed through the first four innings, giving up just two hits. But in the fifth, he surrendered back-to-back doubles as the White Sox collected four hits and scored three times.
Rookie third baseman Brent Morel doubled to right and scored on Mark Teahen's ground-rule double down the left field line.
Teahen reached third on Brent Lillibridge's single to right and scored when leadoff batter Juan Pierre hit into a fielder's choice forcing Lillibridge at second. Pierre advanced on Alexei Ramirez's walk and scored on Alex Rios' single.
Verlander then pitched four innings of hitless ball on the way to his fifth straight victory over Chicago and third complete game of the season.
NOTES: Chicago starter Lucas Harrell went five innings and gave up three runs on eight hits while striking out five and walking two. ... The Tigers scored all their runs with two outs.