Carmichael, who was the fastest in practice earlier in the day and therefore the last driver to make his qualifying attempt in the 39-truck field, turned a lap at 177.812 mph around the fast 1.54-mile track for his first pole in his 60th truck start.
Sprint Cup Series regular Clint Bowyer earned the outside pole with a lap at 177.721 mph. Bowyer, driving the No.2 Chevrolet for Kevin Harvick Inc., has started on the front in his first four truck races this season.
Carmichael's Turner Motorsports teammate James Buescher qualified third, while Parker Kligerman took the fourth spot. Ryan Newman completed the top-five. Newman, driving an entry for Turner, is making his first truck start since the March 2009 race at Atlanta.
Johnny Sauter, the current points leader, will start 12th. Sauter holds a seven-point advantage over Buescher.
Norm Benning, Clay Greenfield and Wayne Edwards failed to qualify.
The 200-mile truck race at Atlanta is scheduled to start just after 8:00 p.m. (et).