Billingsley hurt himself during his last inning on Friday against the Angels, manager Joe Torre said.
The right-hander tried to throw before Tuesday night's game against Cincinnati, but Torre said a high groin pull tightened up.
Billingsley is 6-4 with a 4.34 ERA in 13 starts.
The Dodgers will call up a relief pitcher, Torre said. The rotation will be juggled, with John Ely moving up a day to start Thursday's series finale in Cincinnati.
Carlos Monasterios will start Friday in Boston and Vicente Padilla will be activated from the disabled list to start Saturday, Torre said.