Russia has systematically covered up doping in "all sporting disciplines" since 2011, an official report has found.
The sporting ministry and the secret service "directed, controlled and oversaw" the manipulation of urine samples, the World Anti-Doping Agency said.
It resulted in at least 312 falsified results right through to at least last year's world swimming championships, WADA said.
The state-sponsored cheating happened after an "abysmal" medal count at the Vancouver Winter Olympics in 2010, according to the report.
The cheating involved clean urine being frozen and switched for doped urine, often passed through secret holes in laboratories.
As well as the Sochi Winter Olympics in 2014, Russia's cheating also included the 2013 track world championships in Moscow, the investigation found.
The doping continued in the 2015 swimming world championships in Kazan, chief investigator Richard McLaren said.
Russia's track and field athletes are already banned from the Olympic Games in Rio, beginning this summer.
The independent findings likely will increase pressure for all Russians - not just those in track and field events - to be banned from the games.