Britain's Treasury chief has promised the country will 'strike back' against cyberattacks amid fears that online threats from state-sponsored hackers jeopardize society.

Philip Hammond is outlining a 1.9 billion-pound ($2.3 billion) national cybersecurity strategy to underscore that both government and private industry must take steps to thwart potential attacks.

The government did not specify which countries it considers to be a threat.

The remarks come as the head of MI5, Andrew Parker, told the Guardian that Russia "is using its whole range of state organs and powers to push its foreign policy abroad in increasingly aggressive ways — involving propaganda, espionage, subversion and cyberattacks."

The strategy also addresses the so-called "internet of things" — in which everyday items such as appliances have network connectivity.