Tunisia's new president has been sworn in before parliament as the nation completes its democratic transition on the last day of 2014.

Beji Caid Essebsi, an 88-year-old veteran of past governments, swore before the parliament dominated by his Nida Tunis Party to protect the country and not exclude any Tunisians.

Tunisians kicked off the Arab Spring in 2011 when they overthrew their long-ruling dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

After a rocky transition, partly run by an Islamist party, Tunisians voted in Essebsi and his party, which includes many veterans of the old regime, in a series of elections this fall.

The campaign between Essebsi and outgoing president Moncef Marzouki was bitter.

At his inauguration, Essebsi said there would be no future for the country without consensus and national reconciliation.