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Union and rebellion: Milestones of Scotland's journey from British union to independence vote

  • FILE - This is a Thursday Sept. 11, 1997 file photo of a Scottish voter Rory Murray as he leaves the polling station in Bo'ness, 24 kms , 15 miles northeast of Edinburgh after casting his vote in the Scottish referendum Thursday Sept. 11, 1997. Scots voted  on creating their own Parliament, the biggest wrench from England in 290 years of union. On Thursday Sept. 18, 2014: Scottish voters decide whether to keep Great Britain intact or end their union with England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (AP Photo/Max Nash, File)

    FILE - This is a Thursday Sept. 11, 1997 file photo of a Scottish voter Rory Murray as he leaves the polling station in Bo'ness, 24 kms , 15 miles northeast of Edinburgh after casting his vote in the Scottish referendum Thursday Sept. 11, 1997. Scots voted on creating their own Parliament, the biggest wrench from England in 290 years of union. On Thursday Sept. 18, 2014: Scottish voters decide whether to keep Great Britain intact or end their union with England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (AP Photo/Max Nash, File)  (The Associated Press)

  • FILE - This is a Monday, Oct. 15, 2012  file photo of Britain's Prime Minister David Cameron, right, and Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond, sign a referendum agreement during a meeting at St Andrews House in Edinburgh.   The agreement between Salmond's SNP and Prime Minister David Cameron's Conservative-led British government paves the way for a referendum. The referendum will held on Thursday Sept. 18, 2014. (AP Photo/Gordon Terris, Pool, File)

    FILE - This is a Monday, Oct. 15, 2012 file photo of Britain's Prime Minister David Cameron, right, and Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond, sign a referendum agreement during a meeting at St Andrews House in Edinburgh. The agreement between Salmond's SNP and Prime Minister David Cameron's Conservative-led British government paves the way for a referendum. The referendum will held on Thursday Sept. 18, 2014. (AP Photo/Gordon Terris, Pool, File)  (The Associated Press)

  • FILE - This is a Thursday, July 1, 1999  file photo of Britain's Queen Elizabeth II and Speaker of the Scottish Parliament Lord David Steel, center left, behind crown, as they preside during the opening of the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh, Scotland.  In a colorful ceremony melding populism with ancient tradition, the queen Thursday opened Scotland's first Parliament in nearly 300 years. The 129-member Scottish Parliament convened with the Labour Party leading the government, and  Scottish nationalists the opposition. On Thursday Sept. 18, 2014 Scottish voters will decide whether to keep Great Britain intact or end their union with England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (AP Photo/Stephen Lock, Pool, File)

    FILE - This is a Thursday, July 1, 1999 file photo of Britain's Queen Elizabeth II and Speaker of the Scottish Parliament Lord David Steel, center left, behind crown, as they preside during the opening of the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh, Scotland. In a colorful ceremony melding populism with ancient tradition, the queen Thursday opened Scotland's first Parliament in nearly 300 years. The 129-member Scottish Parliament convened with the Labour Party leading the government, and Scottish nationalists the opposition. On Thursday Sept. 18, 2014 Scottish voters will decide whether to keep Great Britain intact or end their union with England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (AP Photo/Stephen Lock, Pool, File)  (The Associated Press)

These are the milestones of Scotland's journey from Great Britain to the United Kingdom and, following Thursday's vote, a possible return to independence.

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May 1, 1707: A treaty creates a new Kingdom of Great Britain governed from London. Scotland's Parliament in Edinburgh is abolished.

Sept. 6, 1715: Rebels led by Highland clans back Scotland's aspiring heir to the British throne, James Stuart. Their armies march south into England to topple George I but are defeated. James flees to France in February 1716.

July 23, 1745: James Stuart's son Charles — better known as Bonnie Prince Charlie — arrives in Scotland to launch a second Highlander-led rebellion. Charles' forces enter Edinburgh in September but fail to marshal strong public support, and a proposed French invasion of England is canceled. The rebellion is crushed at the Battle of Culloden near Inverness on April 16, 1746. Charles flees for France. British parliamentary acts seek to outlaw the Highland clan system.

Jan. 1, 1801: Scotland enters a bigger United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland following passage of parliamentary bills in London and Dublin.

May 30, 1913: The House of Commons in London passes a home rule bill for Scotland following decades of lobbying and three rejected bills. The approach of World War I thwarts these plans to create an Edinburgh legislature handling Scottish affairs.

April 20, 1934: Two nationalist parties merge to create the Scottish National Party.

March 1, 1979: A Scottish referendum to create a regional legislature fails because of low turnout.

Sept. 11, 1997: Scots give 74.3 percent voter backing to create a Scottish Parliament in a referendum backed by Britain's newly elected Labour Party, the longtime political power in Scotland.

May 12, 1999: The 129-member Scottish Parliament convenes. Labour leads the government, Scottish nationalists the opposition.

May 5, 2011: First Minister Alex Salmond, who had overseen a minority government in Scotland since 2007, leads his Scottish National Party to an unexpected landslide victory in elections. The SNP gains an overall parliamentary majority.

Oct. 15, 2012: An agreement between Salmond's SNP and Prime Minister David Cameron's Conservative-led British government paves the way for a referendum.

Sept. 18, 2014: Scottish voters decide whether to keep Great Britain intact or end their union with England, Wales and Northern Ireland.