Fans, some from as far away as California, carried signs and had painted their faces in black-and-white to resemble Kiss band members.
Those participating in the half-hour demonstration were upset that the band, formed more than 30 years ago, has not been admitted, even though it has been eligible since the late 1990s.
Artists become eligible for induction 25 years after the release of their first record, according to the museum's Web site.
"Criteria include the influence and significance of the artist's contributions to the development and perpetuation of rock and roll," the site says.
A museum spokesman said it was the first demonstration by fans seeking to have a group inducted.
The foundation that selects inductees is based in New York City, not at the museum.