Nineteen Roman Catholic bishops, nine of them Americans, have resigned since 1990 in the context of sex scandals.

U.S. cases:

— Cardinal Bernard Law, archbishop of Boston, on Friday, following months of criticism for his mishandling of sex abuse claims against priests.

— Bishop J. Kendrick Williams of Lexington, Ky., on June 11, following allegations he abused two minors and an 18-year-old decades ago, which Williams denied.

— Auxiliary Bishop James McCarthy of New York, on June 11, after apologizing for affairs with adult women.

— Archbishop Rembert Weakland of Milwaukee, following May 23 news that his archdiocese paid $450,000 to a man claiming Weakland attempted to sexually assault him. Weakland admitted an "inappropriate relationship" but denied abuse.

— Bishop Anthony O'Connell of Palm Beach, Fla., in March, after admitting repeated abuse of an underage student at the Missouri seminary he led. Others filed later suits.

— Bishop G. Patrick Ziemann of Santa Rosa, Calif., in 1999, when a priest claimed sexual coercion after Ziemann learned he had stolen parish funds. Ziemann said their relationship was consensual.

— Bishop J. Keith Symons, O'Connell's predecessor in Palm Beach, in 1998, after admitting past molestation of five boys in three parishes.

— Archbishop Robert Sanchez of Santa Fe, N.M., in 1993, after confessing relationships with adult women.

— The late Archbishop Eugene Marino of Atlanta, in 1990, upon admitting involvement with a woman parishioner.

Elsewhere:

— Archbishop Edgardo Storni of Argentina, on Oct. 1, after a book said he abused at least 47 seminarians, though a 1994 Vatican investigation found insufficient evidence to act. Storni said his resignation did not signify guilt.

— Auxiliary Bishop Franziskus Eisenbach of Germany, in April, after a woman accused him of sexual abuse and injuries during an exorcism. The Vatican said resignation was no admission of guilt.

— Bishop Brendan Comiskey of Ireland, in April, after apologizing for not preventing a priest's serial abuse.

— Archbishop Juliusz Paetz of Poland, in March, amid allegations he had sexually harassed several priests, which he denied.

— Archbishop John Aloysius Ward of Wales, in 2001, after charges he ignored warnings about two priestly molesters.

— Bishop Hansjoerg Vogel of Switzerland, in 1995 after admitting he had impregnated a woman following his appointment to the hierarchy the preceding year.

— Cardinal Hans Hermann Groer, Austria's primate, sent into exile in 1995 following molestation claims from former high school boys. Neither Groer nor the Vatican directly admitted guilt.

— Bishop Hubert O'Connor of British Columbia, Canada, charged in 1992 and imprisoned in 1996 for sexually assaulting two teenage girls as principal of a boarding school.

— Bishop Eamonn Casey of Ireland, in 1992, upon admitting he fathered a child and used church offerings to pay the mother secret child support.

— Archbishop Alphonsus Penney of Newfoundland, Canada, in 1990, after a church commission criticized him for failing to prevent extensive abuse of orphanage boys.