Jackson was fired by the Raiders in January following just one season as the team's head coach, finishing the year with an 8-8 record.
He will serve as the assistant to the Bengals' secondary coach, as well as the special teams' assistant.
Prior to being named head coach, Jackson was the Raiders' offensive coordinator in 2010. He joined the club after two years as quarterbacks coach for Baltimore and numerous other stops as an assistant, including coaching the Bengals' wide receivers from 2004-2007.
Also on Friday, the Bengals signed free agent running back Aaron Brown.
A sixth-round draft choice by the Detroit Lions in 2009, Brown has appeared in 22 career games with two starts for the Lions, carrying the ball 45 times for 189 yards.
He also has 18 career receptions for 138 yards and a touchdown.