Kitna appeared in three games for the Cowboys this season, but had been inactive the past four weeks with the back issue. Stephen McGee, who started one game last year, will continue in the backup role to Tony Romo.
The 39-year-old Kitna had indicated that this would be his last NFL season. He started nine games last year after Romo was lost for the season in October.
Kitna saw his most extensive playing time this year in Week 2 against San Francisco when Romo suffered a fractured rib. He completed 6-of-10 passes for 87 yards with a touchdown and two interceptions before Romo returned.
This was Kitna's third season with Dallas after three in Detroit. He began his 15-year career with Seattle in 1997 and spent four seasons with the Seahawks before playing five years in Cincinnati.
For his career, Kitna has thrown for 29,745 yards with 169 touchdowns and 165 interceptions in 141 games.
The Cowboys filled the roster spot by promoting wide receiver Dwayne Harris from the practice squad to the active roster. Harris appeared in five games for the Cowboys earlier this season, returning three kickoffs and 11 punts.
Dallas also added quarterback Chris Greisen to the practice squad. Greisen played in five NFL games for Arizona in 1999 and 2000, throwing for 69 yards with one touchdown.