Police say Edelman was arrested at about 1:30 a.m. Tuesday outside a Boston nightclub by officers responding to a report of an assault on a woman.
He was taken into custody but later released after posting bail.
Edelman is scheduled to appear in Boston Municipal Court on Tuesday.
The third-year player was drafted in the seventh round of the 2009 NFL draft and has three catches this year for 25 yards.
A message left with a Patriots spokesman seeking comment wasn't immediately returned.