CAIRO – Here are key events in eight years of turmoil and transition in Egypt, leading up to a national referendum on constitutional amendments that could allow President Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi to remain in power until 2030.
Feb. 11, 2011: Autocrat Hosni Mubarak steps down after 18 days of nationwide protests against his nearly 30-year rule. The military takes over, dissolving parliament and suspending the constitution after the uprising leaves hundreds of protesters dead in clashes with security forces.
Nov. 28, 2011-Feb. 15, 2012: The Muslim Brotherhood wins nearly half the seats in multi-stage elections for the first post-Mubarak parliament.
June 30, 2012: The Muslim Brotherhood's candidate Mohammed Morsi takes office as Egypt's first freely elected president.
Aug. 12, 2012: Morsi removes the defense minister and military chief, Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, and replaces him with Lt. Gen. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi.
Nov. 22, 2012: Morsi unilaterally decrees greater powers for himself, a move that sparks days of protests.
Dec. 15-22, 2012: Egyptians approve a constitution drafted and hastily passed by Islamists amid protests and walkouts by other groups.
June 30, 2013: On Morsi's anniversary in office, millions of Egyptians begin days of demonstrations demanding his resignation. The military gives him 48 hours to reach an agreement with his opponents, but he vows to remain in office.
July 3, 2013: El-Sissi announces Morsi's removal.
Aug. 14, 2013: More than 600 people, mostly Morsi supporters, are killed when police clear two pro-Morsi sit-ins in Cairo. Islamists retaliate by torching government buildings, churches and police stations. Hundreds more die in subsequent violence.
Dec. 25, 2013: The government designates the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist organization.
May 26-28, 2014: Egyptians vote in a presidential election. El-Sissi wins with 96.9 percent of the vote.
May 16, 2015: Morsi and more than 100 others are sentenced to death over a mass prison break during the 2011 uprising.
October 2015: Egypt holds parliamentary elections, leading to an assembly packed with el-Sissi supporters.
April 2, 2018: El-Sissi wins a second, four-year term in office, with more than 97% of the vote.
February 2019: Lawmakers submit proposed amendments to the constitution that allow el-Sissi to remain in power beyond his current second four-year term.
April 10: President Donald Trump welcomes el-Sissi to the White House for a second official visit.
April 17: The Parliament, packed with el-Sissi's supporters, overwhelmingly passes the proposed amendments.
April 18: Egypt's National Election Authority schedules three days of voting in a nationwide referendum on the amendments. The vote takes place Saturday through Monday.