GENEVA – The "Garcia Report" commissioned by FIFA to investigate the 2018 and 2022 World Cup bid contests had less dramatic impact than many critics wanted.
When a disputed summary of the report was published, Russia and Qatar easily kept the hosting rights they won in December 2010.
Still, exactly two years ago Friday, FIFA handed American lawyer Michael Garcia's investigation report to Switzerland's attorney general as a criminal complaint against suspected money laundering linked to the bid campaigns.
That lengthy case is ongoing and confidential.
Until it is completed, the main legacy of Garcia's report is a series of ethics committee sanctions for FIFA officials — none from Russia or Qatar.
Here's a look at those sanctions:
So elusive for many years, former FIFA vice president Jack Warner was expelled from world soccer by Garcia's work in September 2015.
Warner "committed many and various acts of misconduct," the summary of Garcia's report noted, adding that the Trinidad and Tobago lawmaker "was a key player in schemes involving the offer, acceptance, and receipt of undisclosed and illegal payments."
In July 2011, Warner took a $1.212 million payment from former FIFA presidential candidate Mohamed bin Hammam, the report said. Both were then under investigation for allegedly bribing Caribbean voters.
The money, Garcia said, was linked to Warner's "decision to resign from FIFA and refuse to cooperate in the proceedings against Mr. Bin Hammam."
Reynald Temarii, the FIFA vice president for Oceania in 2010, was banned twice by FIFA's ethics committee — before and after the 2018-2022 votes.
The former Tahiti player got a 1-year ban for talking to undercover reporters from The Sunday Times, which alleged widespread wrongdoing.
Temarii appealed, with Bin Hammam's encouragement and financial help, and so left Oceania with no vote.
According to the Garcia Report summary, Temarii intended to vote for England and Australia. However, "the difference it would have made if Mr. Temarii would have participated in the vote would not have been significant."
In May 2015, Temarii was banned for eight years for taking 305,640 euros (now $327,000) from Bin Hammam in January 2011 to pay his legal fees.
Asia's longtime FIFA vice president until 2011, Chung Mong-joon's surprise presidential bid in 2015 to succeed Sepp Blatter was derailed.
Chung was banned for six years on charges related to "duty of disclosure" and "obligation to collaborate" with investigators. It was cut to five years on appeal, and he was fined 50,000 Swiss francs ($49,850).
The ethics committee opened its case "based on findings in the (Garcia) report" against Chung, a member of the South Korean family which owns World Cup sponsor Hyundai.
Before the December 2010 vote, Chung wrote to FIFA colleagues proposing a Korean-backed "Global Football Fund" of almost $800 million. Those letters created "at least the appearance of a conflict (of interest)," the Garcia summary noted.
Perhaps the strangest Garcia Report case related to 2010, with then Chile soccer president Harold Mayne-Nicholls leading a FIFA team inspecting each World Cup bid. He was most critical of Russia and Qatar, and mostly ignored by FIFA voters.
Days after visiting Qatar, Mayne-Nicholls asked about unpaid work for three relatives at the Aspire youth academy in Doha.
In 2014, when weighing a FIFA presidency run against Blatter, Mayne-Nicholls learned he was being investigated for conflicts of interest and unethically seeking gifts.
Ethics judges later said he "ignored his responsibility ... to act with utmost neutrality and integrity."
Mayne-Nicholls was banned for seven years, reduced to three on appeal by FIFA, and fined 20,000 Swiss francs ($19,900).
Franz Beckenbauer and Angel Maria Villar, both former international players and 2018-2022 voters, were found to have disrespected Garcia's investigation.
Beckenbauer was provisionally banned for two weeks during the 2014 World Cup for snubbing requests for witness statements. He then complied.
About 18 months later, Beckenbauer was formally warned and fined 7,000 Swiss francs ($6,975). He is now under investigation by Swiss federal prosecutors and FIFA's ethics committee over irregular payments linked to Germany hosting the 2006 World Cup.
Villar verbally insulted Garcia in Spanish, and was warned and fined 25,000 Swiss francs ($24,900) last November.
The first Garcia Report case announced was to clear FIFA veteran Michel D'Hooghe of all suspicion. Four allegations against the Belgian doctor were considered, including accepting a painting from a long-time former executive committee colleague from Russia.
Chung and Mayne-Nicholls can still appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, FIFA told the AP, even several months after being notified of their FIFA appeal verdicts.
A case announced this month could also use Garcia evidence.
Former Bin Hammam aide Najeeb Chirakal faces a life ban in a case "focused mainly on his involvement in payments to several football officials." Those could include Bin Hammam's cash gifts to Warner and Temarii.
Other FIFA ethics cases against individuals could also be ongoing but remain confidential.