Syria’s government and opposition forces will meet for the first time in January in hopes to establish a transitional government, the United Nations announced Monday.
Previous attempts to bring the two sides together have failed, mainly because of disputes over who should represent the Syrian opposition and government, Syrian President Bashar Assad's future role in the country, and whether Iran, Saudi Arabia and other regional powers should be at the table.
The meeting, which will take place on Jan. 22 in Geneva, is an attempt to halt the nearly 3-year-old civil war that has killed more than 100,000 people.
U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged the government and opposition to help the conference succeed by taking steps to stop the violence, provide access for desperately needed humanitarian aid, release detainees, and help hundreds of thousands of refugees and internally displaced people return to their homes.
"We go with a clear understanding: The Geneva conference is the vehicle for a peaceful transition that fulfills the legitimate aspirations of all the Syrian people for freedom and dignity, and which guarantees safety and protection to all communities in Syria," he told reporters at U.N. headquarters.
He said a key goal of the conference would be the establishment of a transitional government with powers over military and security. A full list of participants has not yet been decided.
The U.N.-Arab League's top envoy to Syria, Lakhdar Brahimi, said that the United States, Russia and the United Nations would meet on Dec. 20 to prepare for the first meeting between Syria's government and the opposition.
"We are still discussing the complete list of participants" for the Geneva meeting, he said. Asked if Iran and Saudi Arabia would participate, Brahimi said "we haven't established this yet."
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said in a statement Monday that “no one should underestimate the difficulties ahead.”
“We are well aware that the obstacles on the road to a political solution are many, and we will enter the Geneva conference on Syria with our eyes wide open,” he said.
“To contain the growing threat from extremism and foreign fighters within Syria, and to ensure respect for Syria's territorial sovereignty, we cannot delay the work of establishing a transitional government,” Kerry added. “While it is ultimately up to the Syrian people to form a new government and bring an end to the conflict, the United States and our partners can help get them there. “
The U.N. did not specify who will be representing Syria's opposition at the talks, but Britain's foreign secretary said the main opposition group, the Syrian National Coalition, will participate. The group has limited control over the myriad rebel groups fighting Assad's forces.
Khaled Saleh, a spokesman for the group, said it had not yet decided who it would send, but remained dead set against inviting Iran to the talks.
Iran, a staunch supporter of Assad, has given him significant financial support and is believed to have sent military advisers, trained pro-government militiamen and directed one of its proxies, Lebanon's Shiite Muslim Hezbollah group, to fight alongside Assad's troops.
"We want to have a successful conference, and we are not interested in a conference that is going to waste time; we are not interested in a conference that is going to justify killing more Syrians," he said.
"As of now, what I can say is Iran is not a party that's welcome given the current circumstances to attend the conference. If they change their positions, they start pulling out, and stop killing Syrians; we will start talking about them attending to the conference."
Russia has also been the key sponsor and ally of Assad's government, blocking U.N. Security Council resolutions that would slap it with sanctions, and continuing to provide it with weapons.
The Syrian Foreign Ministry said in a letter to Ban that ending support for the "armed terrorist groups" in Syria is "crucial for any political solution to the crisis in Syria to succeed and to give such a political process credibility in the eyes of the Syrian people." Contents of the letter were broadcast on Syrian TV on Monday.
The U.N.'s goal is based on the roadmap for a Syrian political transition adopted by the U.S., Russia and other major powers at a conference on Syria in June 2012 in Geneva, in which the warring sides were not invited.
The roadmap envisioned the establishment of a transitional governing body with full executive powers agreed to by both sides, and ending with elections. But there has been no agreement on how to implement it. One of the biggest sticking points has been the future role of Assad.
Earlier this month, the Syrian National coalition agreed to attend peace talks if a number of conditions were met, including humanitarian corridors to give relief agencies access to besieged areas and the release of detainees, particularly women. But the group stressed that Assad could have no role in the transitional period. The coalition dropped an earlier demand that Assad step down ahead of peace talks.
Syrian government officials have insisted Assad would not step down and may even run for another term in presidential elections scheduled for mid-2014. Recent battlefield victories have shifted the momentum of Syria's conflict in Assad's favor.
Two people with close to the situation told The Associated Press on Monday that U.N. and Western officials have been training members of the Syrian opposition in negotiating skills the Netherlands, Germany and Turkey. They spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of the issue.
Hague's government and other major Western powers have backed the main Syrian opposition group.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.