Published November 04, 2013
CAIRO – Egypt's deposed Islamist president was brought Monday from the secret location of his four-month detention to face trial on charges of incitement of violence and murder. It was Mohammed Morsi's first public appearance since his ouster in a coup on July 3.
Here are some key events from more than two years of turmoil and transition in Egypt:
— Jan. 25-Feb. 11, 2011: Egyptians stage nationwide protests against nearly 30 years of rule by autocrat Hosni Mubarak. Hundreds of protesters are killed as Mubarak and his allies try to crush the uprising, but the 18-day uprising ends with Mubarak's ouster. The military takes over, dissolving parliament and suspending the constitution.
— Nov. 28, 2011-Feb 15, 2012: Egypt holds multi-stage elections for the first post-Mubarak parliament. In the lawmaking lower house, the Muslim Brotherhood wins nearly half the seats, and ultraconservative Salafis take another quarter. The remainder go to liberal, independent and secular politicians. In the largely powerless upper house, Islamists take nearly 90 percent of the seats.
— May 23-24, 2012: The first round of presidential elections winnows down a field of 13 candidates, leaving two to face each other in a runoff: the Brotherhood's Morsi and Ahmed Shafiq, the last prime minister under Mubarak.
— June 14: The Supreme Constitutional Court orders the lower house of parliament dissolved on grounds the election rules were unconstitutional.
— June 16-17: Presidential runoff election held. Morsi defeats Shafiq with 51.7 percent of the vote.
— June 30: Morsi takes oath of office.
— Nov. 19: Members of liberal parties and representatives of Egypt's churches withdraw from the assembly writing the constitution, protesting attempts by Islamists to impose their will.
— Nov. 22: Morsi unilaterally decrees greater powers for himself, giving his decisions immunity from judicial review and barring the courts from dissolving the constituent assembly and the upper house of parliament. The move sparks days of protests. Islamists hurriedly finalize a draft constitution and Morsi sets a Dec. 15 date for a referendum.
— Dec. 4: More than 100,000 protesters march on the presidential palace, demanding cancellation of the referendum. The next day, Islamists attack an anti-Morsi sit-in, sparking street battles that leave at least 10 dead.
— Dec. 15, Dec. 22: Referendum is held, and Egyptians approve the constitution, with 63.8 percent voting in favor. Turnout is low.
— Jan. 25, 2013: Hundreds of thousands protest against Morsi on the second anniversary of the start of the anti-Mubarak revolt. Protests rage over the next two months, with dozens dying in clashes.
— April 7: A Muslim mob attacks the main cathedral of the Coptic Orthodox Church as Christians hold a funeral for four Christians killed the day before. Pope Tawadros II blames Morsi for failing to protect the building.
— June 30: On Morsi's first anniversary in office, millions of Egyptians begin days of massive demonstrations demanding he step down. The military gives Morsi 48 hours to reach an agreement with his opponents. On July 2, he delivers a speech vowing not to step down.
— July 3: Egypt's military chief Gen. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi announces that Morsi has been deposed and that the chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court, Adly Mansour, will serve as interim president. Tens of thousands of Morsi supporters camp out in two mass sit-ins in Cairo's streets and launch mass protests demanding his return to office.
— July 5: Mansour dissolves the Islamist-dominated upper house of parliament. At least 36 people are killed in clashes between pro- and anti-Morsi groups and other violence.
— July 8: Egyptian soldiers fire on Morsi supporters protesting outside a military facility in Cairo, killing more than 50. Each side blames the other for starting the violence. Mansour sets a timeline for amending the constitution and electing a new president and parliament by mid-February. The Muslim Brotherhood refuses to participate in the process.
— July 9: Economist Hazem el-Beblawi appointed interim prime minister and opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei as vice president.
— July 26: Millions nationwide rally after the military chief calls for gatherings to give him a mandate to stop "potential terrorism" by Morsi supporters.
— July 27: At least 80 people are killed when security forces and armed men in civilian clothes clash with Morsi supporters near the larger of their two Cairo sit-ins, at the Rabaah al-Adawiya mosque.
— Aug. 14: More than 600 people, mostly Morsi supporters, are killed when riot police clear the two pro-Morsi sit-ins in Cairo. The presidency declares a monthlong state of emergency, with a curfew in Cairo and other cities. Vice President Mohamed ElBaradei resigns in protest over the assaults.
Over the next days, Islamists retaliate by torching government buildings, churches and police stations. More than 173 people are killed in one day of battles between Brotherhood supporters and opponents. More than 40 churches, dozens of Christian institutions, schools, homes and businesses are attacked in a backlash blamed on Morsi supporters.
— Aug. 18: A government tally says the nearly 900 people have been killed in four days of unrest, though rights groups put the number higher. Authorities intensify arrests of Brotherhood leaders and members. Two days later, the Brotherhood's top leader, Mohammed Badie, is arrested.
— Aug. 19: Suspected Islamic militants kill 25 policemen in the Sinai Peninsula. Militant attacks escalate in Sinai over the following months, with shootings, bombings and suicide attacks, killing security officials and troops. Troops backed by helicopter gunships and tanks launch major sweeps.
— Aug. 25: Trial begins for Badie and around three dozen other Brotherhood members on charges of inciting the murder of anti-Morsi protesters on June 30.
— Sept. 5: Egypt's interior minister survives a bombing targeting his convoy in Cairo.
— Sept. 12: State of emergency is extended for two more months.
— Sept 23: An Egyptian court orders the Muslim Brotherhood to be banned and its assets confiscated.
— Oct. 6: At least 51 people killed when security forces and Islamist protesters clash during a national holiday celebrating the military.
— Oct. 9: The U.S. suspends delivery of tanks, helicopters and fighter jets to Egypt's military in a show of disapproval over the anti-Brotherhood crackdown.
— Oct. 29: Judges in the Badie trial quit the case after security officials refuse to let the defendants attend the courtroom sessions.
__ Nov. 4: Morsi is flown by helicopter from his secret detention place to the police academy in eastern Cairo where his trial gets underway.