SAO PAULO – The Committee to Protect Journalists on Thursday issued its first "Risk List" for the most significant downward trends in press freedom during 2012. It examined six indicators: fatalities, imprisonments, restrictive legislation, state censorship, impunity in anti-press attacks and journalists driven into exile.
Here are the 10 countries listed and the reasons CPJ gave for listing them:
— Syria: Now the world's deadliest place for journalists. At least 28 were killed and two others went missing between January 1 and December 10, 2012.
— Turkey: With 49 journalists imprisoned for their work as of December 1, 2012, Turkey emerged as the world's leading jailer of journalists.
— Iran: Authorities imprisoned 45 reporters and editors as of December 1, 2012. Imprisoned journalists are subjected to extended solitary confinement, deprivation of medical care, and torture.
— Pakistan: Seven journalists killed in 2012.
— Russia: President Vladimir Putin signed a series of bills seen as aimed at stifling dissent. Sixteen murders of journalists over the past decade.
— Somalia: Twelve journalists were killed in direct relation to their work in 2012.
— Vietnam: At least 14 journalists are behind bars.
— Brazil: Four journalists killed in 2012. Judicial censorship hampers press freedoms; public figures have filed hundreds of lawsuits to silence the press.
— Ecuador: Legislation bars news media from promoting political candidates "directly or indirectly" in the 90 days before an election. Three journalists fled into exile in 2012.
— Ethiopia: An anti-terrorism law is used to silence critics. In late 2012, six journalists were in prison. At least 49 Ethiopian journalists have been forced into exile since 2007.