California is finished with gentle nudges and polite reminders as state officials weigh drastic measures to deal with a devastating drought.
State regulators are naming and shaming local water departments that have let water wasters slide and are forcing agencies to slash water use by as much as a third. The regulators claim it is necessary as the state’s reservoirs and snow packs reach record lows.
The drought does not have a clear end in sight, but it is up to hundreds of local agencies, from small irrigation districts to the city of Los Angeles, to make sure California has enough water to power through it.
California has taken a soft approach to curtail water use, but Gov. Jerry Brown said that will no longer get the job done.
In response, state regulators have drafted plans that show how much each community has conserved and assign mandatory water reduction targets. A third of the water departments must make the deepest 35 percent cuts because they have high water use.
"It's going to require some major changes in how those communities think about, use and manage their water, but it is possible," said Heather Cooley of the nonprofit Pacific Institute.
Cities have used hot weather and earlier cutbacks as scapegoats for pitiful conservation in the past, but that is no longer a free pass.
The city of Los Angeles will have to cut its water use by a fifth. At least one million more people live in the city now than in 1975.
Those who do not meet the targets or take steps to conserve face $10,000-per-day fines if they do not adopt new water restrictions or change rates as demanded by the state.
State officials say residential conservation through turning off the sprinklers, taking shorter showiers and doing less laundry is the most effective way to boost statewide water supplies in a drought.
Not all cities were at risk of running out of water and didn't feel the same pressure to conserve. Some had enough water in local storage to weather the drought. Other local elected officials risked the wrath of constituents for hiking rates or imposing far-reaching restrictions.
"If it's the state telling them what they have to do, that takes the heat off of local officials," said Ellen Hanak, a water expert at the Public Policy Institute of California.
The new strategy is a result of Brown’s executive order to change water consumption. The governor met privately for three hours Wednesday with representatives from water agencies, agricultural interests and environmental groups
"The challenge here, aside from getting the water, is to merely collaborate together and not try to blame other people and point fingers," Brown told reporters as the meeting ended.
Brown faces another tough hurdle in trying to get people who have not been conserving water to make drastic cutbacks. Water agencies will not receive additional money to hire water police or acquire any authority to turn off taps.
Hitting customers in the wallet is an effective way of bringing change: Santa Cruz and the San Ramon-Dublin area slashed water use more than 30 percent after slapping big fines on residents who went over water limits.
Bigger bills may not be enough to motivate the owners of mansions on the hills overlooking San Diego. They are served by California's top water guzzling agency, the Santa Fe Irrigation District.
Jennifer Parks, a spokeswoman for the district, said the agency plans to finally fine offenders and is willing to ration if necessary.
In some communities, drastic cuts could threaten the local economy. The man-made oasis of Palm Springs, in the desert, attracts thousands each year to dozens of lush golf courses, hotels and verdant landscapes, but now faces a mandate to cut water use by 35 percent, or 2 billion gallons, over nine months.
"There is nothing like it we've ever had to face in terms of how we live our lives," said Craig Ewing, the board president of the Desert Water Agency which serves Palm Springs.
The board previously rejected increasing water rates as water use rises, but Ewing says the state mandates will likely force the agency to reconsider. Four years into the drought, it will now ramp up water waste enforcement, particularly for guests using vacation homes, and communities are ripping up grass in favor of drought-tolerant shrubs and bushes.
"It will be a new welcome, rather than acres of green lawns," Ewing said.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.