Key dates in Pervez Musharraf's tenure as Pakistani army chief and president:
— Oct. 7, 1998: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif appoints Musharraf as chief of army staff.
— May 2, 1999: Pakistani and Indian troops clash at Kargil in divided Kashmir. Sharif later orders Musharraf to withdraw under U.S. pressure.
— Oct. 12, 1999: Musharraf ousts Sharif, seizes power in a coup.
— June 20, 2001: Musharraf appoints himself president of Pakistan while still army chief.
— Sept. 11, 2001: Al Qaeda launches attacks in the United States. Musharraf pledges Pakistan's support for America, abandoning the Taliban and enraging many devout Muslims.
— April 30, 2002: Musharraf holds a widely criticized referendum to secure support to continue as president for a five-year term.
— Oct. 10, 2002: Elections that observers consider flawed install a pro-Musharraf parliament.
— Dec. 14, 2003: Explosives wreck a bridge in Rawalpindi just after Musharraf's car has passed. Days later, Musharraf survives twin homicide car bombings on the same road.
— Dec. 30, 2004: Musharraf reneges on promise to resign as army chief, gains support of parliament to stay on until 2007.
— Oct. 6, 2007: Parliament elects Musharraf for a new five-year term in a vote boycotted by the opposition.
— Nov. 3, 2007: Musharraf declares a state of emergency, suspending the constitution and dismissing independent-minded judges as the Supreme Court was set to rule on the legality of his election.
— Nov. 28, 2007: Musharraf steps down as army chief, becomes a civilian president.
— Dec. 15, 2007: Musharraf lifts the state of emergency.
— Feb. 18, 2008: Musharraf's opponents win parliamentary elections.
— Aug. 8, 2008: Ruling coalition leaders announce they will seek Musharraf's impeachment.
— August 18, 2008: Musharraf announces his resignation.