• Omar Bongo ascended to Gabon's presidency Dec. 2, 1967, after his predecessor's death. In his 70s, Bongo faces little political opposition in oil-rich West African nation of 1.5 million.
• Moammar Gadhafi of Libya took power through a Sept. 1, 1969, military coup in the oil-producing North African nation of 6 million people. He is in his 60s.
• Maldives President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, in his late 60s, came to power Nov. 11, 1978, in the Indian Ocean island nation of 370,000.
• Teodoro Obiang of Equatorial Guinea, in his mid-60s, seized power in the oil-producing West African nation of 500,000 citizens in Aug. 3, 1979, coup.
• Angola's Jose Eduardo dos Santos took power Sept. 21, 1979, after winning an election under a one-party system then governing the oil-producing southern Africa nation of 12 million. He is in his 60s.
• Robert Mugabe has been the only leader of Zimbabwe's 12 million people since April 18, 1980, when the country won independence from white rule. He is in his 80s.
• Egypt's Hosni Mubarak, in his late 70s, became president Oct. 14, 1981, after the assassination of Anwar Sadat. Egypt has 80 million people.
Sources: The Associated Press, CIA World Factbook, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.