ISLAMABAD, Pakistan – Benazir Bhutto was the target of threats from virtually all of the militant groups who make Pakistan their home — from Al Qaeda to homegrown terrorists to tribal insurgents on the Afghan border.
Her assassination after a rally in the garrison city of Rawalpindi — where the country's military and intelligence services are based — also focused anger and suspicion on the government of President Pervez Musharraf.
The former prime minister blamed Al Qaeda, the Taliban and homegrown militants for an Oct. 18 suicide bombing that tore through a procession welcoming her back from exile to lead her opposition party in parliamentary elections. But she accused militant "sympathizers" in Musharraf's administration of backing the attempt on her life. Bhutto's supporters chanted, "Killer, Killer, Musharraf!" outside the hospital where she was pronounced dead Thursday.
• FOX Facts: Benazir Bhutto
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Al Qaeda No. 2 Ayman al-Zawahri decried Bhutto's return in a video message this month and called for attacks on all the candidates in the Jan. 8 elections. And according to Bhutto, several Pakistanis arrested in an assassination attempt during her second term in the mid-1990s said they were following Usama bin Laden's orders.
["The intelligence community has reached no conclusions yet on who killed Benazir Bhutto," said Office of the Director of National Intelligence spokesman Ross Feinstein. "Intelligence is being drawn from across the community, the CIA, signals intel from the NSA, DIA (Defense Intelligence Agency), FBI, imagery from the NGA (National Geospacial-Intelligence Agency)."]
The U.S.-backed, British-educated leader, who forcefully pledged to redouble Pakistan's fight against Islamic militancy, was also despised by Taliban-style radicals backed by tribes along the Afghan border.
Baitullah Mehsud, a tribal warlord in the Waziristan region, was quoted in a Pakistani newspaper as saying that he would welcome Bhutto's return with suicide bombers. He later denied that in statements to local television and newspaper reporters.
Bhutto also was labeled an infidel by groups such as Jaish-ul Mohammed, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba and Hezb-ul Mujahedeen, which were spawned by Pakistan's military and intelligence services to take on neighboring India in the disputed Kashmir region.
The groups later aligned themselves with Al Qaeda and have vowed to battle foreign troops in Afghanistan, and wage war against the Pakistani military for its support of the U.S.-led anti-terror campaign. Some of their leaders said Bhutto deserved to die for her threats to crush militants.
"I think by far the most likely (suspect) is the Al Qaeda organization, which has been trying to kill Bhutto for the better part of the decade," said Bruce Riedel, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution and former senior director for South Asia on the National Security Council.
"If it's not them, it's certainly one of the groups that are sympathetic with them," Riedel said. "They all work together and share a common antipathy to Bhutto because she's a woman, an advocate of secularism, a supporter of democracy and everything they stand against."
Retired army Gen. Hamid Gul, a former head of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence secret service agency, questioned the security arrangements made for Bhutto's rally.
A cordon of police surrounded the park where Bhutto spoke, yet her attacker was able to get to the rear gate, where he shot her as she was leaving and then detonated himself, according to witnesses.
"How could they enter with so much of a police cordon. I am surprised," Gul said in an interview with The Associated Press.
A Washington-based friend of Bhutto's, Mark Siegel, told CNN that the former prime minister had been "very concerned that she was not getting the security that she had asked for," including devices used to jam cell phone signals.
"She had asked for special tinted cars, she had asked for four vehicles to surround her at all times," Siegel said. "All of that was denied to her.
Gul asserted that a suicide bomber couldn't have carried out the attack without being forewarned of Bhutto's movements with a cell phone or other device.
Bhutto had complained after the October assassination attempt in the city of Karachi that jamming devices had not been working, Gul said.
"Why were the jammers not working? She had been begging the government after the attack in Karachi saying the jammers were faulty then," he said. "I know that these things could not occur if the jammers are working."
"I think it is convenient to put the blame on Al Qaeda. But there are other possibilities and they have to be examined," Gul said, without offering specifics. Gul strongly opposes the U.S.-backed campaign and Islamic militants, and has labeled himself their only public supporter.
In Washington, FBI and Homeland Security officials sent a bulletin to law enforcement agencies nationwide citing Islamist Web sites as saying Al Qaeda had claimed responsibility for the attack and that al-Zawahri had planned it.
The bulletin was summarized by a law enforcement official who received it, and asked to remain anonymous because he was not authorized to speak publicly about it.
In an interview with the AP in November, a former district leader of Hezb-ul Mujahedeen said some members of Pakistan's intelligence establishment resented both the idea of a woman leading a Muslim nation and Bhutto's denunciation of militant Muslims. Hezb-ul Mujahedeen is believed to receive major funding from Pakistani intelligence to fight in Indian-controlled Kashmir.
"In the Pakistani (secret) agencies and in the army there are so many people who are not secular, who are fundamentalists and will help a suicide bomber to carry out his job," said the former district leader, Saifullah, who uses just one name.
A former Taliban intelligence official, Mullah Ehsanullah, told The Associated Press this year that there were more than 500 men training as suicide bombers in 50 sites across the region in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
These camps he said, are run by Al Qaeda and include Pakistani jihadis and Arab militants.
A second former Pakistani intelligence officer and self-declared friend of Usama bin Laden, Khalid Khwaja, said Bhutto "was very openly threatening these tribal people."
"Naturally some of them could have done it," he said. "It has to be someone who hates you to that degree. She was certainly hated to that degree by those elements who are victims of the American terror."