Foxx won best male album for "Unpredictable" while Blige won best female album for "The Breakthrough."
John Legend won best male single for "Save Room," and Gnarls Barkley won for best single in the category for group, band or duo for "Crazy."
"I want to thank Soul Train for appreciating my music and black music over the years," said Legend, who did not attend the show, via a television feed.
Jennifer Hudson, who last month won a best supporting actress Oscar for the movie musical "Dreamgirls," was given the Sammy Davis Jr. Award for Entertainer of the Year.
After receiving her award, Hudson reflected on her rapid rise to stardom after being an "American Idol" finalist a few years ago.
"I just can't believe I got the Sammy Davis Jr. award," said Hudson, who also performed during the show. "I'm standing on the same stage where I made the top 32 of 'American Idol."'
Jay-Z won the Michael Jackson award for best soul or rap video for "Show Me What You Got." The Isley Brothers Featuring Ronald Isley won best album for a group, band or duo for "Baby Makin' Music."
Ne-Yo was awarded best new soul or rap artist for "Sexy Love." Best soul or rap dance cut went to Webstar & Young B Featuring The Voice of Harlem for "Chicken Noodle Soup."
Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds was presented the Stevie Wonder Award for Outstanding Career Achievement in Song Writing.
"When you think of songwriting and where it comes from, you go to your space in your room and you write, and you try to write from the heart," Edmonds said.
Beyonce won best female single for "Irreplaceable" while best gospel album went to Kirk Franklin for "Sounds from the Storm, Volume 1."
LeToya and Omarion were co-hosts of the show at the Pasadena Civic Auditorium, which was scheduled to be televised in syndication between March 17-25.
The Soul Train Music Awards are sponsored by the syndicated music show "Soul Train" and celebrate artists in R&B, hip-hop and gospel music.
Winners are determined by a group of radio-station professionals, talent managers and performers.