Residents of the city's Wanzhou district have until March 15 to hand over their dogs, according to a directive seen Wednesday on the district's official Web site.
"All the dogs in the area should be killed. A compulsory cull phase will begin after March 16. The forced cull will be carried out by the police," the directive said.
The statement said government guard dogs and those animals kept for research institutions, military and commercial purposes would be spared.
Officials have rounded up dogs in other cities, such as Beijing, as they crack down on strays and unregistered pets.
A spokesman at Wanzhou's Health Department refused to comment about the cull.
Hong Kong's South China Morning Post newspaper on Wednesday quoted a Wanzhou health official, Ran Hua, as saying the move would combat rabies in the area. He said three cases have been reported within the last year, and the paper said one person died last month.