Rhodes, 28, was pulled over about 3 a.m. driving a GMC truck 81 mph in a 55-mph zone on Interstate 65 in Indianapolis' far northwest side, Indiana State Police spokesman 1st Sgt. Dave Bursten said.
"It was a normal, run-of-the-mill drunk driving arrest," Bursten said.
Rhodes was cooperative with the state troopers who arrested him, police said. He was being held at the Marion County arrestee processing center Tuesday morning.
Colts spokesman Craig Kelley said the team did not have any immediate comment on the arrest.
Rhodes' attorney Jim Voyles, who was at the processing center, said he did not where Rhodes was before the arrest and did not have a chance to see him. He said Rhodes likely would be released on his own recognizance after an initial hearing.
Rhodes, who became a free agent after the season, delivered an MVP-like performance in the Super Bowl, rushing for more than 100 yards in the win over Chicago. Afterward, he was featured in a Disney World television commercial with coach Tony Dungy.
Rhodes has been in trouble with the law before. Following a 2002 domestic disturbance at his home, Rhodes pleaded innocent in Marion Superior Court to misdemeanor charges of battery and domestic battery. Latrina Moore, who lived with Rhodes at the time and is the mother of a child with Rhodes, said Rhodes hit her and shoved her to the floor after she confronted him about other women calling their home, prosecutors said at the time.
Under an agreement with prosecutors in that case, Rhodes was charged with domestic battery but avoided prosecution. Instead, Rhodes was placed in a diversionary program and underwent mental health counseling.
The Associated Press left a message Tuesday seeking comment from Rhodes' agent Michael McCartney.
Rhodes started all 16 regular-season games in 2006, rushing for 641 yards and 5 touchdowns. He was Edgerrin James' backup since 2001 and had a chance to become the Colts featured back in 2006 but instead shared the job with rookie Joseph Addai.
The six-year veteran has rushed for 2,274 yards in his career.