The quake, with a preliminary magnitude of 5.3, was centered in the town of Silivre, in the province of Elazig, the Istanbul-based based Kandilli Observatory said. It struck at 04:22 a.m. (0222 GMT).
The quake was felt in neighboring provinces and at least 28 people were hospitalized after jumping from balconies and windows, in fear of being trapped in their homes, Gov. Muammer Musmal said.
The quake caused cracks on walls but no serious damage, he said.
Elazig is some 450 miles southeast of Ankara, the capital.
Earthquakes are frequent in Turkey, which lies on active fault lines. Two devastating earthquakes in 1999 killed some 18,000 people.