Excavators Find Mass Grave in Iraq

The bodies of 41 Kuwaitis believed killed during the first Gulf War (search) have been unearthed in southern Iraq, one of 295 mass graves containing thousands of Saddam Hussein's victims uncovered in the two years since U.S.-led forces invaded and ousted the dictator, Iraq's Human Rights Minister said Saturday.

In a telephone interview with The Associated Press, Bakhtiar Amin (search) said he informed the Kuwaiti government of the discovery three days ago. The bodies were found in a mass grave in the city of Amarah, 180 miles southeast of Baghdad.

The discovery was another step in documenting what happened to 605 Kuwaitis who have been missing since the 1991 Gulf War. The bodies of only 190 other Kuwaitis have been identified.

The difficult security situation in Iraq (search) is hampering the work of investigators as authorities find or are alerted to the discovery of mass graves, which will provide evidence in war crimes cases the Iraqi Special Tribunal is building against Saddam and his top ministers, Amin said.

Cases already have been brought to court against Barzan Ibrahim al-Hassan al-Tikriti, one of Saddam's half brothers, former Vice President Taha Yassin Ramadan and Ali Hassan al-Majid, better known as "Chemical Ali" for his part in chemical weapons gassing of Kurds in the north of the country.

"The list of crimes that these people committed is long, and the trials will start as soon as possible," Amin said, adding that a start-date was still not known.

He said some graves contained the remains of dozens of people, while other had thousands, with victims ranging from the Kuwaitis to minority Kurds, who were systematically killed during Saddam's rule.

"Iraq is a land of mass graves due to the genocide policy of Saddam Hussein," he said. "We have hundreds of thousands of people missing."

Since January, two mass graves were discovered in Kirkuk, two were found in Sulaymaniyah, and one in Halabja — all containing Kurdish victims, Amin said.

Investigators also traveled to Nasiriyah, 200 miles southeast of Baghdad, this week to inspect a site that locals had begun digging up after a farmer plowing in his field discovered about 20 bodies. It was not known where the bodies came from.

"We're calling on our citizens. No one should open the mass graves. They should inform the authorities and the human rights people. It needs to be done properly, scientifically, respectfully," Amin said.

It was difficult to estimate how many people were buried in the different sites, since some graves had several layers that have yet to be uncovered, Amin said, recalling one particular location in Hatra in northern Iraq.

"In Hatra, we went looking for one and we found 11. It's difficult to say. It could be more, it could be less. The number of missing is calculated to be about 1 million in Iraq," he said.

Some 2,000 bodies were found recently in the area of Samawah in northern Iraq. The entire site is believed to hold members of Massoud Barzani's clan. Some 8,000 relatives of Barzani, who heads the Kurdish Democratic Party, were taken from a camp in the northern city of Irbil in the summer of 1983 and never heard from again.

Amin said hundreds of thousands of Kurds in the north and Shiites in the south were killed and remained missing after rising up against Saddam's regime during the first Gulf War.

"We are in the beginning of this search for truth. More than half the Iraqi population has a loved one who is missing, disappeared," he said.

The Iraqi Human Rights Ministry so far has files on 150,000 people missing from the Iran-Iraq war of the 1980s, the first and second Gulf Wars.

Files sent from the International Committee of the Red Cross on missing persons altogether weighed about 130 pounds, Amin said.

He said the ministry hoped to open three centers in the north, south and center of the country to create rehabilitation programs for the families of victims.

"We have had unfortunately this terrible legacy of wars and families left behind in pain," Amin said. "Saddam has caused pain and suffering to these people and its neighbors because of his aggressive policies. The healing process is going to take time, the tender wounds are still fresh."