Following is a list of Pulitzer Prize winners and brief descriptions of their work:
The 2005 Pulitzer Prizes for Journalism:
PUBLIC SERVICE: The Los Angeles Times.
The Los Angeles Times won for a five-part series on government neglect at King/Drew Medical Center, a hospital created in South Los Angeles after the Watts riots of 1965. The public service medal was awarded to reporters Charles Ornstein, Tracy L. Weber, Steve Hymon and Mitchell Landsberg and photographer Rob Gauthier.
The stories disclosed flaws in treatment and administration, political cronyism and led to the creation of an oversight board to review operations, as well as a criminal investigation into deaths at the hospital.
"There were families down there who, time and again, were willing to speak to us about losing their loved ones in the hospital — probably the worst day of their lives," said Hymon. "The story wouldn't have the weight that it did without them."
The Times has now won 37 Pulitzer Prizes.
BREAKING NEWS REPORTING: Staff, The Star-Ledger, Newark, N.J.
The Star-Ledger staff won for its coverage of the resignation of New Jersey Gov. James McGreevey after he announced he was gay and confessed to having an affair with another man. Editor Jim Willse said 100 people had roles in producing the coverage, including 50 reporters, photographers and columnists, as well as news editors and copy editors. "We threw everything we had at it."
McGreevey started his astounding news conference about 4 p.m. on Aug. 12, and the first edition deadline for the state's largest newspaper is at 8:30 p.m. The newspaper added six pages to accommodate its coverage.
It was only the paper's second Pulitzer in 173 years.
INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING: Nigel Jaquiss, Willamette Week, Portland, Ore.
Jaquiss won for his investigation exposing former Gov. Neil Goldschmidt's long-concealed sexual misconduct with a 14-year-old girl when he was mayor of Portland.
Following up leads that larger papers had overlooked, Jaquiss requested public records that involved the woman or her family and learned she had been a neighbor of Goldschmidt's and babysitter for his children, and as a teenager had gone from a straight-A student and class president to a substance-abusing dropout. He found the abuse lasted for three years and ended only when Goldschmidt left to become President Carter's transportation secretary.
Willamette Week is an alternative weekly with an unpaid circulation of 90,000. The paper has carved a niche with its unflinching look at Oregon politics and its whimsical reviews of rock bands and cheap restaurants. It is the fifth alternative weekly to win a Pulitzer.
EXPLANATORY REPORTING: Gareth Cook, The Boston Globe
Cook, who has covered science for the Boston Globe since 2000, was cited for explaining the complex scientific and ethical dimensions of stem cell research.
"I felt really lucky all year," Cook said. "Everything went right. It was a one-of-a-kind experience."
In one of his stories, Cook wrote about a couple who had conceived two children via invitro fertilization and was forced to decide what to do with the embryos they had not used.
Another piece, the result of an extensive survey, looked at stem cell research moving overseas because of restrictions imposed by the Bush administration.
Cook did two months of interviews with the family of a 15-year-old boy with muscular dystrophy who traveled to Ukraine to visit a clinic giving "embryonic stem-cell treatments." He visited the clinic and wrote a piece casting a critical eye on the clinic's claims.
BEAT REPORTING: Amy Dockser Marcus, The Wall Street Journal.
Marcus, a Boston-based staff reporter, was honored for her stories that illuminated the often-unseen world of cancer survivors. The series chronicled how huge advances in treatment have transformed the expectations of patients and doctors, who are increasingly focusing on life after diagnosis rather than solely on survival. Marcus revealed how this shift is posing new challenges and was credited by her editors with helping "redefine what it means to be a cancer patient and a cancer survivor."
With a 2005 Pulitzer in the Criticism category, the Journal has won 31 Pulitzer Prizes.
NATIONAL REPORTING: Walt Bogdanich, The New York Times.
Bogdanich, recently named the newspaper's assistant editor for its expanded Investigative Desk, was cited for his stories about the corporate cover-up of responsibility for fatal accidents at railway crossings.
"I'm thrilled and very grateful that the New York Times encouraged this type of reporting on an area that wasn't making the front pages," he said. "This was a topic that not a lot of people cared about."
This is the second Pulitzer for Bogdanich, who won in 1988 for his articles in The Wall Street Journal on substandard medical laboratories.
INTERNATIONAL REPORTING: Kim Murphy, the Los Angeles Times, and Dele Olojede of Newsday, Long Island, N.Y.
Murphy, the Moscow bureau chief for the Times, won for her coverage of Russia's struggle to cope with terrorism, improve the economy and make democracy work. A reporter with the Times since 1983, she started covering Russia in July 2003.
She sees the prize as recognition for a series of stories that "marked the growing realization in the United States and the West that the government of Vladimir Putin was not everything that we had hoped it would be since the Soviet Union collapsed. That, in fact, Russia became a much more aggressive player on the world stage."
Olojede, Newsday's Africa correspondent, was cited for his look at Rwanda a decade after rape and genocidal slaughter had ravaged the Tutsi tribe.
"I feel somewhat guilty that I'm enjoying it more than I thought I would. I didn't think that my ego was that large that I would feel such a pure sense of joy and pride," he said.
Born in Nigeria, he is the 12th of 29 children.
FEATURE WRITING: Julia Keller, the Chicago Tribune.
Keller was honored for her account of a deadly 10-second tornado that ripped through Utica, Ill., killing eight people. Her series focused on the time surrounding when the tornado struck and the town's efforts to recover from its destruction. The series, which ran on the Tribune's front page in December, came several months after the tornado hit and the storm had been covered extensively by the media.
"You knew about the destruction, but you didn't know the story of what it took to rebuild (the town) and what it did to these people," said James O'Shea, the Tribune's managing editor.
COMMENTARY: Connie Schultz, The Plain Dealer, Cleveland.
Schultz was cited for "her pungent columns that provided a voice for the underdog and underprivileged." Schultz writes a twice-weekly column that touches on emotional and sometimes controversial issues such as abortion, gay marriage and homelessness. She submitted 10 columns ranging on topics from the state's ban on gay marriage to how management at a local restaurant was taking money from the tip jar at the coat check.
"I enjoy having an opinion," said Schultz, who had been a reporter with the paper until 2003. "I get to report on things that drive me crazy and have an opinion about it."
CRITICISM: Joe Morgenstern, The Wall Street Journal.
Based in Santa Monica, Calif., Morgenstern was cited for film reviews filled with "rare insight, authority and wit."
A Pulitzer finalist in 2002, Journal editorial page editor Paul Gigot called Morgenstern "an impassioned lover of movies endowed with a superb critical ability, all of which he manages to transmit in radiant prose."
That included a review of the movie "Closer," in which Morgenstern advised the public to "bring Zoloft and a tank of oxygen."
EDITORIAL WRITING: Tom Philp, The Sacramento Bee.
Philp, an associate editor, was cited for his series of editorials urging a debate on the restoration of California's Hetch Hetchy Valley, which was flooded in 1923 to supply drinking water to San Francisco.
He noted in editorials throughout 2004 that studies have shown the valley could be restored without causing problems for San Francisco. As a result, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger's administration has agreed to examine the idea.
Philp, 43, choked back tears as he awaited word of the winners from The Associated Press.
"I still have a hard time accepting this," Philp said as his colleagues and family stood nearby in the newsroom applauding loudly. "I just remember how scared I was thinking of writing this."
EDITORIAL CARTOONING: Nick Anderson, The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Ky.
Anderson's cartoons, on national and international issues including the war in Iraq and the 2004 presidential election, have an "unusual graphic style that produced extraordinarily thoughtful and powerful messages," the judges said.
"It's really nice to get some recognition — it's great," said Anderson, who was working on Tuesday's cartoon when he learned he had won.
"It's terrific to see Nick be recognized for his strong performance," said Courier-Journal Publisher Ed Manassah. "He's been doing this day in and day out, and he's done a superb job."
Editorial Director David Hawpe said Anderson was hired out of college, even though the paper already had a cartoonist, because "we just didn't want to let him get away."
"We really though he would be one of America's great cartoonists," Hawpe said.
It was The Courier-Journal's eighth Pulitzer.
BREAKING NEWS PHOTOGRAPHY: Associated Press staff.
A team of 11 photographers won for a portfolio of combat photos from Iraq, including an image of three charred bodies hanging from a bridge over the Tigris River and a group of Marines praying over a fallen comrade.
Five of the photographers are Iraqis struggling "to tell the story of their own country," said AP President and Chief Executive Officer Tom Curley.
Khalil Mohammed, who took the photo of the hanging bodies, said he was threatened immediately after taking the photo.
"I told the driver to keep the engine running, just in case," he said. "We have the responsibility to show the whole world what is happening here."
Jim MacMillan, who took a photo of U.S. Army soldiers taking cover during a gun battle in Najaf, said the photographers risked their lives daily.
"It really comes down to the bravery of these guys," MacMillan said. "They are the bravest, most driven professionals I've ever seen."
FEATURE PHOTOGRAPHY: Deanne Fitzmaurice, the San Francisco Chronicle.
Fitzmaurice won the prize for feature photography for a project documenting the life of a 9-year-old Iraqi boy who was injured in the war and brought to the San Francisco Bay area for medical care. What started as a one-day assignment on the boy's treatment evolved into a year-long commitment as Fitzmaurice and a reporter followed Saleh Khalaf's recovery, immigration struggles and return to school.
"I didn't really think Pulitzer at all while I was working on it, but I was thinking this is the most important story I've ever done," she said. "It's the most meaningful work I've ever done and knowing Saleh, it was inspirational. I feel like it really brought the war home to us."
FICTION: Marilynne Robinson
"Gilead" is Robinson's first novel since she debuted in 1981 with "Housekeeping." A modern-day epistle of a dying Iowa minister, the Rev. John Ames, "Gilead" reflects the influence of both the writings of St. Paul and the journals of Henry David Thoreau, with its precise prose and stirring contemplation of nature and the divine.
"Those are two writers I profoundly admire," said Robinson, a professor at the University of Iowa's celebrated Writers' Workshop and a Congregationalist who has served as a deacon in the church.
"Gilead," which also won the National Book Critics Circle award, is set in the 1950s as Ames looks back onntry" and "The Death of Adam." Her next project is a literary commentary on the Bible.
DRAMA: John Patrick Shanley
Shanley's "Doubt" opened on Broadway just last week, telling the story of a confrontation between a nun and a Roman Catholic priest at a Bronx parish; she suspects the priest of molesting a male student.
The author of many off-Broadway plays, Shanley is best known for his Academy Award-winning screenplay for the movie "Moonstruck."
"I have been trawling around for a long time before they let me come up out of the muck," he said.
Shanley, 54, is the author of the plays "Danny and the Deep Blue Sea," "Savage in Limbo," "Italian American Reconciliation" and "Four Dogs and a Bone." He also wrote the screenplays for "Joe Versus the Volcano" and "Alive."
Born in New York, Shanley is a graduate of New York University.
HISTORY: David Hackett Fischer
Fischer, a professor at Brandeis University, won for "Washington's Crossing," part of the Pivotal Moments in American History series. It is an account and analysis of how George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River in December 1776 both saved and redefined the American Revolution.
"More or less continuously now, a book or several books about the founders are on best-seller lists with an extraordinary breadth of interest in the reading public," Fischer said.
Hr has previously written of another seminal event of national lore in "Paul Revere's Ride." His other books include "Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America" and "Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement."
BIOGRAPHY: Mark Stevens and Annalyn Swan
It took Stevens and Swan 13 years to research and write "de Kooning: An American Master," about the painter Willem de Kooning.
Stevens, art critic at New York magazine, has been a contributing editor at Vanity Fair, and has written for The New Yorker, The New York Times and several art magazines. He has taught at New School University and published the novel "Summer in the City" in 1984.
Swan, who is married to Stevens, is a partner at ASAP Media, a magazine and book development company. She began her writing career at Time magazine, joined Newsweek as a music critic in 1980 and became the magazine's art editor in 1983. She also was editor-in-chief at Savvy magazine and worked on magazine development for Time, Inc.
Both Stevens and Swan are graduates of Princeton University and hold masters' degrees from King's College, Cambridge.
"Needless to say, we're thrilled," Swan said.
POETRY: Ted Kooser
The first poet laureate from Nebraska, the 65-year-old Kooser is a native of Ames, Iowa. A poet since age 18, Kooser won for "Delights and Shadows," his 10th collection of poetry published last year.
"There are so many gifted poets in this country, and so many marvelous collections published each year. That mine has been selected is a great honor," he said.
Kooser graduated from Iowa State University in 1962 and earned his master's degree in English from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, where he now teaches.
He is former vice president of Lincoln Benefit Life, an insurance company, and lives on an acreage near the village of Garland. He retired from the insurance business when he turned 60, shortly after undergoing surgery and radiation treatment for oral cancer.
GENERAL NONFICTION: Steve Coll
Coll, 47, is an associate editor and former managing editor of The Washington Post. He has worked as a reporter, foreign correspondent and editor at the paper since 1985.
He won for "Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden, From the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001." The book offers an investigative report on the 20 plus years of mostly hidden U.S. involvement in Afghanistan that preceded the war against the Taliban following the terrorist attacks.
He said he decided to write the book after Sept. 11 because he felt "those who lived through it when it was an obscure" story really ought to try and put in perspective."
This is Coll's second Pulitzer. In 1990, while serving as South Asia bureau chief for The Washington Post, he captured a Pulitzer for explanatory journalism.
Coll lives with his wife and three children in Maryland.
MUSIC: Steven Stucky
Stucky has spent the last 17 years working with the Los Angeles Philharmonic. He was appointed as composer in residence in 1988 and has most recently been its consulting composer for new music. He won the Pulitzer for "Second Concerto for Orchestra," which was premiered by the Los Angeles Philharmonic on March 12, 2004.
Stucky, who is also the Given Foundation Professor of Composition at Cornell University, where he has taught since 1980, was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in 1989, for "Concerto for Orchestra."
Asked for his reaction to the prize, he chuckled: "It is nice to get it over with. I've flirted with it a couple of times."
He has written works for dozens of philharmonics and symphonies throughout the world. He is also the founder of Ensemble X, an orchestra that draws its membership primarily from the staffs of Cornell and Ithaca College.