The petition filed in Superior Court seeks dissolution of the actors' marriage based on irreconcilable differences.
A long-rumored split between the "Friends" star and the "Ocean's Twelve" star was confirmed in January when they released a joint statement saying they were formally separating.
The couple married on July 29, 2000, and have no children. It was the first marriage for both.
Calls to Aniston's attorney and to Pitt's publicist were not immediately returned Friday evening.
In her divorce petition, Aniston asked that her maiden name be restored. The actress took Pitt's name legally when they married but continued to use Aniston professionally.
Pitt, 41, and Aniston, 36, began dating in 1998 after being set up on a blind date. They were married on Malibu bluffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Part of Pacific Coast Highway was shut down to accommodate the influx of the 200 guests.
Among those who attended were actress Cameron Diaz and most of Aniston's co-stars from "Friends."
Until rumors began swirling that the A-list couple were about to split, there were near-constant tabloid rumors that Aniston was pregnant. The actress had said she and Pitt eventually wanted to start a family.
The two remain co-owners of the Plan B production company with producer Brad Grey (search).
Aniston shot to fame on "Friends," which ended its 10-year run last year as one of television's highest-rated comedies. She also has starred in such films as "Along Came Polly," "Bruce Almighty" and "The Good Girl (search)."
Pitt's career includes "Ocean's Eleven," "Fight Club," "Meet Joe Black," "Seven Years in Tibet," "Sleepers," "12 Monkeys," "Legends of the Fall," "A River Runs Through It" and "Thelma & Louise."