Published August 12, 2004
A look at governors who were removed from office or resigned:
— Arizona: J. Fife Symington, Republican. Resigned in 1997 after federal criminal conviction for fraudulent dealings as a developer. The conviction was reversed on appeal, and Symington was pardoned by President Clinton in January 2001.
— Arizona: Evan Mecham, Republican. Impeached in 1988 after he was convicted for obstructing an investigation into a death threat allegedly made by an aide.
— Arkansas: Jim Guy Tucker Jr., Democrat. Resigned in 1996 after federal criminal conviction on fraud and conspiracy charges in Whitewater-related business dealings.
— Connecticut: John G. Rowland, Republican. Resigned July 1 amid a monthslong cascade of graft allegations, a federal investigation and a rapidly gathering drive to impeach him for accepting gifts from friends and businessmen.
— Indiana: Warren T. McCray, Republican. Resigned in 1924 after being convicted of mail fraud. Pardoned by President Herbert Hoover in 1930.
— Louisiana: Richard Leche, Democrat. Resigned in 1939, ostensibly for health reasons, but was later convicted of mail fraud stemming from allegations he took kickbacks on state road projects.
— Mississippi: Adelbert Ames, Republican. Resigned in 1876 after a newly elected Democratic state House of Representatives threatened to impeach him because of his party affiliation and his support for black voting rights.
— Mississippi: John A. Quitman, Democrat. Resigned in 1851 after he was indicted for aiding an expedition to overthrow the Cuban government.
— North Carolina: William W. Holden, Republican. Impeached in 1871 for unconstitutionally suspending the right of habeas corpus and sending the militia to arrest Ku Klux Klan members.
— Nebraska: David Butler, Republican. Nebraska's first governor, he was impeached in 1871 for misappropriating school funds and later admitted borrowing the money for private use. Impeachment proceedings were expunged from the legislative record, and in 1888 he was nominated again for governor.
— New York: William Sulzer, Democrat. He bucked the Tammany Hall political machine and was impeached in 1913 on charges of misappropriating funds, making false campaign statements and corruptly influencing the stock exchange.
— Oklahoma: John C. Walton, Democrat. When Walton heard his office was being investigated by a grand jury, he declared martial law and ordered the National Guard to disband the panel. He was impeached in 1923 on 22 articles ranging from violation of the separation of powers to diverting public funds.
— Oklahoma: Henry S. Johnston, Democrat. He ordered the National Guard to surround the Capitol to prevent the Legislature from assembling to discuss his impeachment. The House met in a hotel and voted impeachment articles that the Senate later overturned. He was impeached again the next session and removed in 1929 for general incompetence.
— Texas: James E. Ferguson, Democrat. "Farmer Jim" was impeached in 1917 on 10 charges, including misappropriating public funds, failing to enforce state banking laws and accepting $156,500 from a secret source. He resigned the day before the verdict was announced.