Background: List of Saddam's Atrocities

Some of the major atrocities committed by Saddam Hussein's government:

—1978-80: Hundreds of thousands of Iraqis, whose ancestors were of Iranian origin, packed in trucks and thrown out on border with Iran. Property confiscated. Hundreds died in very cold weather. Thousands of their teenage sons kept in Iraqi jails and after more than 15 years all killed.

— 1983: Government campaign against members of Kurdish Barzani (search) tribe for helping Iran launch offensive in northern Iraq. Estimated 8,000 killed, many buried in mass graves far from home in Iraq's southern desert.

—1986-88: Scorched-earth offensive known as "Anfal (search)" that included chemical attacks on Kurds in northern Iraq for advocating autonomy. Estimated 180,000 Kurds killed, many buried in mass graves in south. Possible genocide charges in Iraqi tribunal.

—1991: Crackdowns on Shiite Muslim (search) and Kurdish uprisings at end of the Gulf War. Estimated 60,000 killed. Many buried in mass graves.

—1992: Draining of marshes in southern Iraq, driving population known as Marsh Arabs from homes and wiping out way of life. Tens of thousands killed. No mass graves. Possible genocide charges.

—1979-2003: Various political prisoners of populations distrusted by Saddam disappeared, including Turkomans, religious Muslims and communists. Tens of thousands believed killed. Many buried in mass graves, some near prisons.