"I hope political prisoners and journalists would be freed as soon as possible," Ebadi told her first news conference in Iran since she won the prize in a surprise decision on Friday.
Dozens of political activists, journalists and others have been jailed on vague charges of working against the Islamic establishment.
Ebadi, a lawyer and rights activist, is hailed by reformers as a new beacon for their embattled effort to weaken the clerics' monopoly on power.
Her supporters hope Ebadi could use her international stature to force concessions from the regime. But Ebadi told reporters she has no plans to run for elected office.
Ebadi, 56, returned to Iran on Tuesday from Paris, where she was attending a conference when the Nobel announcement was made.