LONDON – In the majesty of Westminster Abbey and in quiet corners all around the country, Britain said goodbye Tuesday to the Queen Mother Elizabeth, whose dignity and courage endeared her to millions.
While kings, queens and foreign leaders sat in the splendor of the great abbey church for her funeral, hundreds of thousands of ordinary Britons stood outside and joined in prayer and hymns for the 101-year-old royal matriarch who died March 30.
About a million people turned out in a huge display of affection, police said, including those who later lined the 20-mile route to Windsor Castle, where the queen mother was interred in a royal vault beside her husband King George VI.
People of every age and many nations stood quietly outside the abbey during the funeral, remembering a woman who forged a bond with her countrymen and women during World War II at her husband's side.
Some 400,000 people had gathered through the morning to watch the solemn procession escorting the queen mother's coffin to the abbey from Parliament, where for nearly four days a miles-long stream of people had paid their respects.
Slow drum beats punctuated the shrill bagpipe lament of nearly 200 regimental musicians. Soldiers of the Royal Horse Artillery in gold-trimmed black tunics rode six black horses pulling a gun-carriage that bore the coffin. The same carriage carried her husband's coffin at his funeral in 1952.
Prince Philip, Prince Charles, Princess Anne and eight other family members followed on foot, while Queen Elizabeth II and the other members of the family took their places in the abbey.
When the coffin entered the church, the abbey choir of men and boys began to sing and the silent congregation of 2,200 stood for the beginning of the service, broadcast outdoors for the crowd.
"In gratitude we bid farewell to a greatly loved queen, for her grace, humanity and sympathy, for her courage in adversity, for the happiness she brought to so many," said the Very Rev. Wesley Carr, Dean of Westminster, as the coffin rested on a bier before the altar.
It was draped in the queen mother's personal standard and surmounted by the crown she wore at her husband's 1937 coronation.
Archbishop of Canterbury George Carey spoke of the queen mother's strength and dignity, and the humor that reached across the generations.
"There was certainly nothing remote or distant about her own sense of dignity," Carey said in his sermon. "It was a dignity that rested not on the splendid trappings of royalty, but a sense of nobility of service."
"With her openness to people, indeed as part of it, came a quiet courage. A courage manifest in wartime and widowhood, a courage that endured to the end," he said.
The monarchs of Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium and the Netherlands were among the 25 members of foreign royal families in the congregation. Leaders and representatives from across the world attended, including first lady Laura Bush, the leaders of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and representatives of many other countries.
Standing by the tomb of the Unknown Warrior, trumpeters sounded the Last Post, their clear notes soaring through the abbey before the mourners sang the national anthem.
After her wedding in the abbey nearly 80 years ago, the queen mother, who had lost a brother in World War I, placed her bridal bouquet at the memorial to Britain's war dead. Royal brides have done so since.
Much of Britain came to a standstill for the funeral, as people gathered around television sets to watch the ceremony. People paid tribute, holding two minutes of silence at airports, shopping centers and schools to coincide with the start of the funeral.
"It has been a wonderful atmosphere and it is almost as if she is still with us," said Janie Johns, 48, who had slept on the sidewalk outside the abbey, huddled inside a sleeping bag.
After the funeral, the coffin was placed in a hearse for the drive to Windsor, where the Queen Mother was buried in a vault at a private family ceremony in St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. She lies beside her husband beneath a black marble gravestone that is being newly inscribed with their names.
The ashes of their younger daughter, Princess Margaret, who died two months ago at age 71, were placed in the vault alongside them.
As the bells of Westminster Abbey pealed, a World War II-vintage Lancaster bomber droned overhead with a Spitfire fighter at each wing, giving a final salute to the wartime queen.
Prince Charles, the queen mother's eldest grandson and the heir to the throne, accompanied the coffin on the slow drive out of London, past thousands of people. Many bowed their heads, while others threw flowers.
This response, like the many thousands who waited up to 12 hours to pay their respects at the queen mother's coffin for days before the funeral, has confounded the expectations of pundits who believed the monarchy had lost its strong tie to the population in a decade of scandal and controversy.