NATO says two gunmen wearing Afghan National Army uniforms turned their weapons on NATO troops, killing one member of the U.S.-led coalition.
A coalition statement said Tuesday's shooting is under investigation.
NATO did not release the nationality of the service member shot, or say whether others were wounded.
The shooting was the latest case of so-called "green-on-blue" attacks in which Afghan soldiers or insurgents disguised in their uniforms shoot at U.S. or NATO troops.
So far this year more than 25 coalition troops have been killed in such attacks. That compares with 11 fatal attacks and 20 deaths the previous year. In 2007 and 2008 there were a combined total of four attacks and four deaths.