Toarlyn Fitzpatrick donated nine points for the Bulls, who will next do battle with 13th-seeded Ohio University in the third round on Sunday.
After making just three field goals in the first half, South Florida ended the game 17-of-50 from the floor. They outscored Temple by a 43-25 margin in the second half.
Khalif Wyatt ended with 19 points for the Owls (24-8), who won the Atlantic-10 regular-season title. Rahlir Hollis-Jefferson tallied 10 points.