Foster tied it at 9:45, and Elias gave the Devils the lead at 12:43 with his 16th goal of the season.
Martin Brodeur made 22 saves to help the Devils improve to 25-17-2. They have won four of their last six games.
The Jets have lost five of six to drop to 20-19-5.
Ladd had some close calls in front of the New Jersey net during the first period, but he scored on the fly. Racing down the left boards from center ice, he fired a high shot that glanced off the top of Brodeur's glove with 1:29 left in the period.
The scoreless second period was costly for the Jets when Wheeler, who leads the team with 32 points, left the game about 7 minutes in.
The right winger was standing in the slot when Sykora unleashed a shot from just inside the blue line that appeared to hit Wheeler in the lower throat area.
New Jersey had a 16-12 edge in shots on goal after the second.
Foster's goal came after winger Dainius Zubrus won the faceoff in Winnipeg's end and kicked the puck to Foster, who snapped it above Pavelec's glove.
Elias redirected a point shot from Larsson for the go-ahead goal.
Notes: Devils rookie Adam Henrique (34 points) didn't play because of a minor groin injury. ... The teams will meet again in New Jersey on Tuesday night, the beginning of a six-game homestand for the Devils.